Tooth extraction or dental extraction is the removal of tooth/teeth from their socket in the mouth.
Extractions can be mainly of two types.
• Simple extraction
• Surgical extraction.
Simple extractions are indicated when the tooth is visible in the mouth, may/may not be mobile, and might only require dental forceps to lift it out of the socket after it has been shaken back and forth. These extractions are relatively simple and can be performed easily and quickly.
On the other hand, surgical extraction involves the removal of teeth that cannot be easily retrieved. such as those that haven't wholly erupted into the bone cavity or has been broken and lodged within the gums. This procedure usually necessitates an incision and the tooth to be extracted are fragmented into small, multiple pieces to allow easy removal. It can be a little time-consuming procedure, and sutures may be needed in case of large, gaping sockets to facilitate healing.
All teeth namely the incisors, canines, premolars, and molars can be extracted using both simple and surgical extraction procedures. The instruments are customized and available for extraction of each type of teeth to allow easy removal. Wisdom teeth usually require surgical extraction method, as they are most commonly impacted or in improper angulation and position.
The following conditions may require tooth extraction procedure:
• Teeth that are grossly decayed, which is beyond repair and further infection cannot be prevented unless removed.
• Tooth extraction for orthodontic treatment is done to gain space for alignment of teeth.
• Teeth that are fractured due to accidents or sports, where repair using restoration or splinting is not possible.
• Loosening of teeth in the socket due to gum diseases, which usually helps hold the teeth in the socket.
• The eruption of wisdom teeth, which are usually impacted or erupting in an improper direction and position, which in turn may affect the positioning and spacing of other teeth. Wisdom teeth in most of the cases are advised for extraction.
Wisdom teeth are the third and last set of molars found at the very end of the mouth. It usually erupts between the ages of 17-25. They are a valuable benefit if they grow healthy and in a proper position. But since they are last teeth to erupt, in most of the cases but they may require removal as they may get misaligned or impacted.
When misaligned, wisdom teeth can grow inwardly, slanting and at times even position themselves horizontally. They eventually crowd and damages the adjacent teeth, the jaw and to some extent even the nerves. Those that erupt leaning towards the adjacent molars may make these teeth susceptible to tooth decay by allowing food particles and dental plaque to accumulate.
Impacted teeth are those that remain partially or entirely trapped within the soft tissues or within the jawbones. A wisdom tooth that only partially erupts through the gums leaves an entry path for bacteria, and they multiply eventually causing infections.
Let your dentist initially will examine the positioning of your wisdom teeth and an x-ray may be required to evaluate the alignment of your teeth. Your dentist or oral surgeon may even advise extractions even before they erupt entirely. Early extraction can help avoid a more complicated and painful extraction in the future. As a rule, wisdom teeth extraction should be done as early as possible, usually in the late teens, when the root of the teeth have not completely formed, and the bones around the teeth are less dense.
Dental extraction procedure:
• The area in which the tooth is to be extracted is first cleaned.
• Tooth extraction pain is something everyone is anxious about. To avoid this, local anesthesia is given. But you need not worry about the pain, because we'll take care of it.
• Your dentist examines the region to ensure that you are completely anesthetized.
• In cases of surgical extraction, a small incision is made on the gums to expose the tooth.
• The gums around the tooth are reflected away from the tooth to ease the process of removal. This is mainly because the gum is what holds the tooth in position. If it is an already loose tooth, this step would not be required.
• In case of surgical extraction, the tooth is usually split, and bone around the tooth is also removed slightly.
• Next, the dental forceps in used to slowly rock the tooth too and fro, loosen it out of the socket and tooth removal is done.
• Suturing will be done if the socket is large or if the extraction was little invasive.
• Antibiotics and painkillers will usually be prescribed. Kindly follow it meticulously.
Tooth extraction aftercare is as important as the extraction procedure itself.
1. A cotton with gauze will be placed on your extraction site. You are advised to bite on the cotton well for the next 45 minutes to 1 hour. This is to ensure bleeding stops.
2. After removing the cotton, eat or drink something cold like ice cream or cold juices. You should not use a straw while drinking, and just directly sip from the cup or tumbler.
3. Avoid spitting saliva for the next 24 hours
4. Avoid hot and spicy food as they may delay healing of the extracted region.
5. Do not brush aggressively in that region. Gently swish water for the first 2-3 days to prevent food accumulation
6. If sutures (which do not resorb by itself) are placed, you will be asked to report after a week to get the sutures removed.
There can be certain complications encountered by the doctor and patient as well. Usually, they are
• Prolonged Pain.
• Prolonged bleeding.
• Post-operative infection.
• Dry socket
• Loss of sensation in the particular region (prolonged anesthesia).
But these complications needn’t worry you, as they occur only in rare instances. If so, report to us immediately and it will be suitably managed.